Syria Beginning Timeline 1942 – 2000, Part 1 A

The Beginning Timeline 1942- 2000

1942 – President Roosevelt introduces the Declaration of the United Nations

April 25, 1945 – United Nations begins with the United Nations Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco.

1947 – Michel Aflaq and Salah-al-Din al-Bitar founded the Arab Socialist Baath Party in Syria

1947 – George Soros is reported to have arrived in London supposedly flat broke at age 16 through countless Soviet checkpoints and German war zoness where he quickly enrolls in London School of Economics

1952 – George Soros graduates earning bachelors and eventually Masters In Philosophy, works briefly in financial service industry

1956 – Soros immigrated to US

1961 – Amnesty International launched. – direct ties to US Government, Open Society Foundation, and many others like Google

1961 – USAID – created by John F Kennedy by executive order, then congress authorizes under Foreign Assistance Act. USAID operates in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe.

1969 – Soros STARTS HIS OWN first hedge fund, Double Eagle. Changes name to Quantum Fund. At its founding, the Quantum Fund had $12 million in assets under management, and as of 2011 it had $25 billion, the majority of his overall net worth.

1970 – Soros started his second hedge fund known as Soros Fund Management

1955-1980 – Soros becomes the financial contributor to “Chapter 77” in Stockholm and Polish Labor Union “Solidarity” supplying allegedly as much as a third of their income. Chapter 77 revenue was thought to have gone from a mere 100k in revenue to over half a million in 1979.

1950 – Islamic Socialist Front founded then changed name to Muslim Brotherhood of Syria

1950’s – Syria unified with Egypt to become the United Arab Republic – Syrian Muslim Brotherhood was forced to disband as part of the conditions.

1962 – Russia accused of steeply manipulating and discounting the European oil market

1968, Syria acceded to the 1925 Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases. Syria had pledged to ratify the CWC if its neighbouring countries, especially Israel, ratify the convention

1969-1973 – US involved in Vietnam War

November 22, 1967 – United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 resolution of Six Day War. Syria denounced in 1967 but “conditionally” accepted the resolution in March 1972.

1967 – Egyptian leader Abdul Nasser ordered U.N. peacekeepers out of his country

June 1967 – Israeli forces seize the Golan Heights from Syria and destroy much of Syria’s air force in the Six Day War with Egypt, Jordan and Syria.

June 12, 1968 – he U.N. General Assembly approved a treaty on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.

June 5, 1969 – Syria, Egypt, and Jordan – Six Day War with Israel

May 1970 – Kent State and anti-war protests turn violent in US

November 13, 1970 – Assad ends bloodless coup and assumes role of President
Hafez believed, and continued to believe until long into his rule, that the only way to get Israel to negotiate with the Arabs was through war. When Assad took power, Syria was isolated; planning an attack on Israel, he sought allies and war material. Ten weeks after gaining power, Assad visited the Soviet Union. He was willing to give the Soviets a stable presence in the Middle East through Syria, access to Syrian naval bases (giving them a role in the peace process) and help in curtailing American influence in the region. The Soviets responded by sending arms to Syria. The new relationship bore fruit, and  Assad met several times with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.

1970 – Assad alludes to a chemical weapon stash

1971 – Nixon ends the Gold Standard monetary policy in response possibly to currency crisis

1970–1971 –  Assad de-radicalized the Ba’ath government when he took power, by giving more space to private property and strengthening the country’s foreign relations with countries which his predecessor had deemed reactionary. He sided with the Soviet Union during the Cold War in turn for support against Israel.

1970’s – Syria received chemical weapon training from Egypt and Russia

1971 – Russian acquires naval base lease at Tartus

1972 — USA Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty signed with USSR

June 1972 – Watergate

1973  – Arab-Israeli War was a watershed for U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East. Nixon and Kissinger attempted  a compromise between Egypt, Syria, and Israel but failed.  The Soviets then began to resupply Egypt and Syria with weapons.  The Israelis requested that America do the same for them and received our help.

October 6, 1973 – Yom Kippur War – Syria and Egypt against Israel

October 6, 1973 – Egypt and Syria attacked Israel’s forces in the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights.

October 14. 1973 – American planes arrived with weapons for Israel

October 22, 1973 – UN Security Council as Resolution 338 was adopted as a U.S.-Soviet proposal for a ceasefire followed by peace talks with a second proposal issue on the 23rd…neither approved by Israel.

October 25, 1973 – United States responded to hardline Russian demands by putting its nuclear forces on worldwide alert . Security Council adopted Resolution 340, which called for a ceasefire, the withdrawal of all forces to their October 22 positions, and U.N. observers and peacekeepers to monitor the ceasefire. United States was at that point closer to a nuclear confrontation with the Soviet Union than at any point since the Cuban missile crisis. 

1973 – Rioting breaks out after President Assad drops the constitutional requirement that the president must be a Muslim.

1973 – Arab oil embargo – Arabs forced price per barrel to go up from US$12 per barrel to around US$75 per barrel. Inflation around the world struck and lasted throughout the 1970’s.

October 1973–1974 — The United States is affected by the Arab Oil Embargo; gasoline prices skyrocket as supplies of gasoline and heating oil are in short supply.

November 13, 1974 – The U.N. General Assembly granted “observer status” to the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) after Yasser Arafat addressed the assembly.

1974 – Assad completes the Tabqa Dam on the Euphrates River in 1974.

1975 – Helsinki Act addressed a range of prominent global issues and in so doing had a far-reaching effect on the Cold War and U.S.-Soviet relations.

1977 – Assad’s political reforms had largely failed. This was partly due to Assad’s foreign policy, failed policies, natural phenomena and corruption. Those who held a socialist view did not agree with family succession. Chronic socioeconomic difficulties remained, and new ones appeared. Inefficiency, mismanagement, and corruption in the government, public, and private sectors, illiteracy, poor education (particularly in rural areas), increasing emigration by professionals, inflation, a growing trade deficit, a high cost of living and shortages of consumer goods were among problems faced by the country. The financial burden of Syria’s involvement in Lebanon since 1976 contributed to worsening economic problems, encouraging corruption and a black market. The emerging class of entrepreneurs and brokers became involved with senior military officers—including Assad’s brother Rifaat—in smuggling from Lebanon, which affected government revenue and encouraged corruption among senior governmental officials.

1977 – Soros appears in Prague to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Charter 77

April 13, 1975 – Lebanese Civil War – Syrian military presence in Lebanon was established after Maronite leaders, who feared attack by leftists and Palestinians asked for assistance. According to a Wikileak US embassy leaked cable – the Maronite leaders affirmed it was their clear, unequivocal and unmistakable belief that their principal hope for saving Christian necks was Syria.

September 1975 – Kissinger and Nixon worked out Egyptian-Israeli disengagement agreement during the year

May 31, 1976 –  Syria began a full-scale intervention in Lebanon. Within a week of the Syrian intervention, Christian leaders issued a statement of support. Muslim leaders established a joint command of all Palestinian groups except As-Sa’iqa, which was driven by the PLO to its stronghold near the main airport. Shortly afterwards, As-Sa’iqa and other leftist Damascus forces were absorbed by the Syrian military. Assad’s actions angered much of the Arab world. The sight of Syria trying to eliminate the PLO brought criticism upon him. Assad was said to have used terrorism and intimidation to extend his control over Lebanon.

October 1976 – Assad was forced to accept a ceasefire at the Arab League meeting. Large Arab Deterrent Force peacekeeping force consisting almost entirely of Syrian troops was placed in the Lebannon region.

September 21, 1977 – Fifteen nations, including the United States and the Soviet Union, sign a nuclear-proliferation pact, slowing the spread of nuclear weapons around the world.

September 17, 1978 — Camp David Accords, where Menachem Begin (Israel) and Anwar Sadat (Egypt) begin the peace process at Camp David, Maryland.

1979 – Open Society Foundation in North Africa, Middle East, and Southeast Asia begins by supporting scholarships for black students at the University of Cape Town in South Africa and for Eastern European dissidents to study abroad. States it works in countries and areas where authoritarian governments suppress the people.

1979 – Decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution sent US in energy crisis. The price of crude oil more than doubled to $39.50 per barrel over the next 12 months, and long lines once again appeared at gas stations. Destablized financial world and included many country defaults.

1979-1982 – Islamist insurgency in Syria (1979–1982)

October 6, 1979 – The Federal Reserve system changes its monetary policy goals from interest rate based to a money supply target orientation.

November 4, 1979 — Iran hostage crisis begins. In the aftermath, a second energy crisis develops, tripling the price of oil and sending gasoline prices over $1 per gallon for the first time.

Early 1980s – Syria’s economy worsened; by mid-1984, the food crisis was severe, and the press was full of complaints. Assad’s government sought a solution, arguing that food shortages could be avoided with careful economic planning.

1980-1985 – Following the outbreak of the Iran–Iraq War, oil production in Iran nearly stopped, and Iraq’s oil production was severely cut as well. Economic recessions were triggered in the US and other countries. Oil prices did not subside to pre-crisis levels until the mid-1980s.

1980 – After the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Muslim groups instigate uprisings and riots in Aleppo, Homs and Hama.

1980 – Membership in Syrian Muslim Brotherhood became a capital offense.

September 1980 – Start of Iran-Iraq war. Syria backs Iran, in keeping with the traditional rivalry between Baathist leaderships in Iraq and Syria.

1981-1984 – Trans-Siberian Pipeline built in Russia.

1984 –  US under Reagan opposes Russian pipeline as part of what was alledged to be retribution against the Soviets for their policies towards Poland. He was worried utter dependence on Russia energy would lead to total Russian communism takeover of European countries. Allies refused to back US. The efforts by the U.S. pressure to prevent the construction of the pipeline, and its export embargo of supplies for the pipeline (1980–1984) constituted one of the most severe transatlantic crises of the Cold War. US congressional hearing held on abuse of Vietnamese workers used to build line.

January 20, 1981 – The Iranian hostage crisis, which lasted four hundred and forty-four days, was negotiated for the return of $8 billion in frozen Iranian assets.

1982-1984 – The period 1982-84 may constitute a global financial as well as currency crisis. Countries most involved: Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, Ghana, Hong Kong, Korea, Peru, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, USA.

February 1982 – Muslim Brotherhood uprising in Syria suppressed by military. Hama uprising of 1982 in the wake of the wider Islamist insurgency in Syria (1979–1982), when thousands of armed insurgents and civilians were killed by the military; meant the Brotherhood was effectively broken as an active political force inside Syria for a short time.

June 1982  – Israel invades Lebanon and attacks the Syrian army, forcing it to withdraw from several areas. Israel attacks the PLO base in Beirut.

September 14, 1982, the Lebanese president Bachir Gemayel was assassinated.  A member of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party was arrested and served eight years in prison until Syria obtained his release.

May 1983  – Lebanon and Israel announce the end of hostilities. Syrian forces remain in Lebanon.

October 23, 1983 – A terrorist truck bomb kills two hundred and forty-one United States peacekeeping troops in Lebanon at Beirut International Airport. A second bomb destroyed a French barracks two miles away, killing forty there. Assad is believed to have caused the failure of the 1983 Lebanon–Israel agreement

1984 – Soros was allowed to set up his Open Society Institutions in communist Hungary

1985 – Guerrilla warfare forced the Israeli Defense Forces to withdraw to southern Lebanon in 1985. Jordanian–Israeli cooperation in the West Bank slowed due to this.

1980’s – Syria begins chemical weapon production

November, 1986 — Iran-Contra scandal breaks – Senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, which was the subject of an arms embargo.

September 1986 -Lebanon officially requested an end to Syrian occupation and that they withdraw.

February 1987 – President Assad sends troops into Lebanon for a second time to enforce a ceasefire in Beirut.

December 8, 1987 — The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty is signed in Washington, D.C. President Reagan and Soviet Premier Gorbachev.

1988 – Occupied Land Fund begins operating in Texas by Shukri Abu Baker, Mohammad El-Mezain and Ghassan Elashi. It also maintained branch offices in New Jersey, California, and Illinois.

February 6, 1989 – George Bush introduces his proposed “Bail Out” plan for troubled savings and loans banks. The plan also includes FDIC oversight of savings and loans

March 29, 1989 – Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

November 9, 1989 – Berlin Wall comes down

December 2, 1989 – Bush meets with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev  to discuss nuclear disarmament and the strengthening of Soviet-American trade relations. Both leaders announce that the Cold War is effectively over. 

1989 – Soros financed Vaclav Havel’s rise to power in the Czech Republic’s “Velvet Revolution”. He has acknowledged having orchestrated coups in Croatia, Georgia, Slovakia, and Yugoslavia

December 14, 1989 – Soros in his own work stated that he was present at the meeting in Prague where Soros, Janouch, Karel Jan Schwartzenberg [then Chairman of the International Helsinki Human Rights Commission and later Vaclav Havel’s Chief of Staff] met with Czechoslovak newly appointed Prime Minister – had two foundations in Russian and Poland. As communism in the Eastern Europe collapsed, he added more foundations in countries across Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

June 1, 1990 – U.S. President George H.W. Bush and his Soviet counterpart Mikhail Gorbachev sign a treaty to eliminate chemical weapon production and begin the destruction of each nation’s current inventory.

August 2, 1990 – Iraq invades its neighbor, Kuwait, setting into motion the beginning of U.S. involvement in the Gulf War. Syria joins the US-led coalition against Iraq. This leads to improved relations with Egypt and the US.

August 2, 1990 – The U.N. Security Council subsequently authorized the use of force to expel him. The United States responded by leading Operation Desert Storm and liberating Kuwait.

August 6, 1990 – United Nations begins a global trade embargo against Iraq.

November 29, 1990 – United Nations passes a resolution, #678, stating that Iraq must withdraw its forces from Kuwait by January 15, 1991 or face military intervention.

November 19, 1990 –  CFE Treaty. The United States, Canada, and twenty other European nations sign the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE). The CFE limits NATO and Warsaw Pact weapons holdings and caps the American troop presence in Central Europe at 195,000.

1990 – Syria participates in United States-led multinational coalition against Saddam Hussein.

January 17, 1991 -Persian Gulf War, Operation Desert Storm begins four days later with air strikes against Iraq. Iraq responds by sending eight Scud missiles into Israel.

February 27, 1991 – The Gulf War ends one day after Iraq withdraws its forces from Kuwait and sets the oil fields on fire.

April 3, 1991 – United Nations Security Council passes Resolution 687, calling for the destruction and removal of the entire Iraqi chemical and biological weapons stockpile, plus ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 kilometers. Iraq also agrees to withdraw its support of international terrorism.

1991 – Treaty of “Brotherhood, Cooperation, and Coordination” signed between Lebanon and Syria

1991 – Soros founds the Central European University as a center of research and policy analysis that promotes the principles of open, democratic societies.  Soros maintains foundations in Hungary, Belgium, United Kingdom, USA, Africa, Asia-Pacific, Euroasia, Southeast Asia, Latin America, Carribean, and the Middle East all of whom reference back to the Open Society Foundation home page.

1991-1998 – Three regional financial crises: in Europe 1990-91, the Tequila Crisis in 1994 and the Asian crisis of 1997-98.

1990’s – Assad further strengthened Alawite dominance. Sunni influence in government was reduced. After the failed Islamic uprising, Assad’s reliance on his relatives intensified.  Syria fell into recession during the mid-1990s.

1990 – UN nearly ceases to exist, calls for its demise have been made nearly every year since then

1992 – Soros’s “Short Sale” of Bank of London using US$10billion worth of Pound Sterling- literally broke the bank – Black Wednesday UK currency crisis.

1992 – Occupied Land Fund changes its name to Holy Land Foundation, suspicious of its ties to the Middle East, the FBI begins monitoring its activities

1992 – President-Elect Clinton secured a $3.5 million Saudi donation for a Middle East studies program at the University of Arkansas and after becoming President, the Saudi’s added another $20 million.

June 12, 1992 – Bush attends an Earth Summit Meeting in Brazil but REFUSES to sign the endangered species portion  saying that it would retard the development of technology and the protection of ideas. The United States does sign the Framework Convention on Climate Change aimed at preventing further global warming. 

June 16, 1992 – U.S.-Russian Nuclear Agreement. President Bush and President Yeltsin announce an agreement by which the United States and Russia reduce their nuclear warheads to between 3,000 and 3,500 by the year 2003. 

1992 – UN presents Agenda 21 for a sustainable world – one world order 

1993 – Aryeh Neier joined the Open Society Foundations in 1993 as president after leading Human Rights Watch and the American Civil Liberties Union

February 26, 1993 – The World Trade Center is bombed by Islamic terrorists when a van parked below the North Tower of the structure explodes. Six people are killed and over one thousand are injured.

June 27, 1993 – President Bill Clinton orders a cruise missile attack on the Iraqi intelligence headquarters in Baghdad, responding to the attempted assassination attempt cultivated by the Iraq Secret Service on former U.S. President George H.W. Bush during his visit to Kuwait two months before.

1994 – Gas pipeline built between Russia and Germany.

October 15, 1994 – Iraq began to withdraw its troops from the Kuwait region. Only after the US deployed troops to Kuwait and in defiance of a UN demand on October 8, 1994.

January 1, 1995 – The World Trade Organization (WTO) is created while Clinton is President.

April 1995 – The U.N. Security Council passed Resolution 986, beginning the Iraqi Oil-for-Food Program. The program was intended to bring humanitarian relief to the people of Iraq but was largely about corruption. Saddam Hussein diverted as much as $5 million of the aid to his personal bank accounts and more than $10 billion was misspent. High-ranking U.N. officials — including Secretary General Kofi Annan’s son —  accused of corruption.

May 11, 1995 – One hundred and seventy nations decide to extend the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty indefinitely.

1996 – Soros launched Open Society Foundations in USA

June 25, 1996 – The Khobar Towers bombing in Khobar, Saudi Arabia kills nineteen U.S. military personnel, destroying the majority of a six building apartment complex that was home to the 440th Fighter Wing. It was carried out by Islamic terrorists seeking removal of the U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia.

September 10, 1996 – U.N. General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty.

Apr 2, 1997 –  The US ratified the UN Chemical Weapons ban and goes into affect

1997 – Assad again refers to a chemical weapon stockpile

October 29, 1997 – Iraq states that it will begin to shoot down U-2 surveillance planes used by United Nations UNSCOM inspectors attempting to mandate Saddam Hussein meet the provisions of surrender in the 1991 Gulf War.

1998 – Russian ruple collapse

February 23, 1998 – Osama bin Laden publishes his fatwa that announced a jihad against all Jews and Crusaders. This announcement would push forward the Islamic fundamentalist agenda toward terrorism against western interests.

August 7, 1998 – Attacks on two United States embassies in Africa, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya kills two hundred and twenty-four and injures four thousand five hundred. The attacks are linked to Osama Bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda organization. 

August 13, 1998 – The United States launches cruise missile strikes against Al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan and a suspected chemical plant in the Sudan.

September 29, 1998 – Iraq Liberation Act passes that states the U.S. wants to remove Saddam Hussein from power and replace it with a democracy.

1999 – Al-Janabi ( Iraqi defector codenamed Curveball) defects to Germany falsely claimed Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction, admitted to the lies as posted in ABC article January 2011 and said he is proud he was able to trick the U.S. and its allies into launching the Iraq War.

January 1, 1999 – The Euro currency is introduced as a competitive tool to stem the power of the dollar and maximize the economic power of the European Union nations.

1999 – UN sets up a terrorist watch list

2000 – Hafez Assad dies.

About Uriel

Retired educator and constitutionalist
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