“A nation can survive its fools, and even the ambitious. But it cannot survive treason from within. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and he carries his banners openly. But the traitor moves among those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the alleys, heard in the very halls of government itself. For the traitor appears not traitor, he speaks in the accents familiar to his victims, and he wears their face and their garments, and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men. He rots the soul of a nation, he works secretly and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of a city, he infects the body politic so that it can no longer resist. A murderer is less to be feared.” – Cicero, 42 B.C.
The Constitution is a marvel of language – simplistic wording allowing brevity to provide distinct purpose. Only one single crime was considered important enough to be placed in the document. These men were learned orators who wrote long volumes in many documents yet kept the actual constitution clear of such. We might wonder why at times but there was sound reasoning based on a lifetime of firsthand experience and historical records.
U.S. Constitution – Article 3 Section 3
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.
Having seen how English law on the subject of treason provided the king and parliament a vehicle for abusive behavior, our forefathers chose to make the word treason to be a single statement of crime and to protect those accused from having generations suffer for the act of one person. By placing this in the document, they were stating clearly their concern and intent. James Madison helps us understand the reasoning.
James Madison “The Federalist Paper No. 43″ January 1778
3. “To declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attained.”
As treason may be committed against the United States, the authority of the United States ought to be enabled to punish it. But as new-fangled and artificial treasons have been the great engines by which violent factions, the natural offspring of free government, have usually wreaked their alternate malignity on each other, the convention have, with great judgment, opposed a barrier to this peculiar danger, by inserting a constitutional definition of the crime, fixing the proof necessary for conviction of it, and restraining the Congress, even in punishing it, from extending the consequences of guilt beyond the person of its author.
Treason has three elements as defined by encyclopedia.com:
1) Breach of allegiance
2) Wrongful intent
3) Some overt act
Rumors of crimes, speculations of intent, nor suppositions based on personal observations are covered under the crime of treason. In Cramer v. United States, 325 U.S. 1, 47 (1945), the first treason case to reach the United States Supreme Court, the Court reaffirmed the restrictive construction of the scope of treason. In Haupt v. United States, 330 U.S. 631 (1947), the Court clarified the matter somewhat: behavior proved by the required testimony of two witnesses need not indicate wrongful intent. But where the charge was aiding the enemy, if the proven overt act can be demonstrated to have given aid to the enemy only when appraised in light of evidence of other conduct of the accused, then that other conduct as well as the particular overt act must be proved by two witnesses. Of course, back then technology was nothing like today so two witnesses has new meaning. As they say a picture is worth a thousand words.
Jerome R Corsica July 7, 2015
See visual proof of Hillary’s ‘secret war’
NEW YORK – The allegation that Hillary Clinton’s State Department secretly provided arms to jihadists in Libya has been further bolstered by videos and photographs provided to WND by Libyan expatriates, including a video showing the chief spokesman for the Moammar Gadhafi regime displaying to reporters a cache of weapons and ammunition seized from a ship from Qatar.
The images support the conclusion reached by the Citizen’s Commission on Benghazi that the Obama White House and the State Department under the management of Hillary Clinton “changed sides in the War on Terror” in 2011 by implementing a policy of facilitating the delivery of weapons to the al Qaida-dominated rebel militias attempting to overthrow Gadhafi.
In addition, FoxNews.com reported in May that emails released by the State Department show Hillary Clinton’s interest in arming Libyan opposition groups before the fall of Gadhafi in 2011, even though the United States and United Nations prohibited arming without following strict guidelines and oversight.
Interception One video provided to WND shows Moussa Ibrahim, Gadhafi’s information minister and official spokesman, displaying to reporters in 2011 a cache of weapons and ammunition seized from a ship from Qatar intercepted by the Libyan Coast Guard off Libya’s coast.
Complete article and video HERE.
If not for Judicial Watch, Citizen’s Commission on Benghazi, and others sinking their teeth into Freedom of Information searches, documentation of emails and interdepartmental information would never have seen the light of day. Hillary Clinton did nothing during her time as Secretary of State that was not sanctioned or expected to be accomplished by Obama. She accomplished absolutely nothing in the position that had the best interests of the general citizenry at its core. Her finances and emails were purported to have been unknown by Obama or his staff yet FOIA obtained information flatly proves this a lie. People both soldiers and diplomats have lost lives, huge monetary and military supplies as well as dozens of other documented actions have been surfacing almost daily. Now there is video evidence emerging linking multiple layers of proof of not just her treasonous activities but by “chain of command” responsibility her boss, Obama. The only place either needs to rule is the space inside a prison cell.