Just When Was HE Born, Anyway?

HE wasn’t born on December 25th, so why do we celebrate it?

Her Majesty the Queen has two birthdays. One on April 21, when she gets presents from her family, cards from friends and well-wishers, and has a quiet dinner at home. And then, her official birthday, the second Saturday of June. This is celebrated with parades, massed bands, trooping the colours, fireworks, and all the pomp and ceremony of the British Empire.  Much the same for the birthday of one far more important than the Queen.

The word for Christmas in Old English is Cristes Maesse, the Mass of Christ, first found in 1038, and Cristes-messe, in 1131.

In Dutch it is Kerstmis, in Latin Dies Natalis, whence comes the French Noël, and Italian Il natale; in German Weihnachtsfest, from the preceding sacred vigil.

The term Yule is of disputed origin. It is unconnected with any word meaning “wheel”. The name in Anglo-Saxon was geol, feast: geola, the name of a month (cf. Icelandic iol a feast in December).

On December 25, Christians around the world will gather to celebrate Jesus’ birth. Joyful carols, special liturgies, brightly wrapped gifts, festive foods—these all characterize the feast today, at least in the northern hemisphere. But just how did the Christmas festival originate? How did December 25 come to be associated with Jesus’ birthday?

The biblical reference to shepherds tending their flocks at night when they hear the news of Jesus’ birth (Luke 2:8) might suggest the spring lambing season; in the cold month of December, on the other hand, sheep might well have been corralled. Yet most scholars would urge caution about extracting such a precise but incidental detail from a narrative whose focus is theological rather than calendrical.

Christmas was not among the earliest festivals of the Church. Irenaeus and Tertullian omit it from their lists of feasts; Origen, glancing perhaps at the discreditable imperial Natalitia, asserts (495) that in the Scriptures sinners alone, not saints, celebrate their birthday; Arnobius can still ridicule the “birthdays” of the gods.

Icon of Clement of Alexandria

Saint Clement of Alexandria

The first evidence of the feast is from Egypt. About A.D. 200, Clement of Alexandria says that certain Egyptian theologians “over curiously” assign, not the year alone, but the day of Christ’s birth, placing it on 25 Pachon (20 May) in the twenty-eighth year of Augustus. Others reached the date of 24 or 25 Pharmuthi (19 or 20 April). With Clement’s evidence may be mentioned the “De paschæ computus”, written in 243 and falsely ascribed to Cyprian, which places Christ’s birth on 28 March, because on that day the material sun was created. But Lupi has shown there is no month in the year to which respectable authorities have not assigned Christ’s birth. Clement, however, also tells us that the Basilidians celebrated the Epiphany, and with it, probably, the Nativity, on 15 or 11 Tybi (10 or 6 January).

At any rate this double commemoration became popular, partly because the apparition to the shepherds was considered as one manifestation of Christ’s glory, and was added to the greater manifestations celebrated on 6 January; partly because at the baptism-manifestation many codices wrongly give the Divine words as sou ei ho houios mou ho agapetos, ego semeron gegenneka se (Thou art my beloved Son, this day have I begotten thee) in lieu of en soi eudokesa (in thee I am well pleased), read in Luke 3:22. Abraham Ecchelensis quotes the Constitutions of the Alexandrian Church for a dies Nativitatis et Epiphaniæ in Nicæan times; Epiphanius quotes an extraordinary semi-Gnostic ceremony at Alexandria in which, on the night of 5-6 January, a cross-stamped Korê was carried in procession round a crypt, to the chant, “Today at this hour Korê gave birth to the Eternal”; John Cassian records in his “Collations”, written 418-427, that the Egyptian monasteries still observe the “ancient custom”; but on 29 Choiak (25 December) and 1 January, 433, Paul of Emesa preached before Cyril of Alexandria, and his sermons show that the December celebration was then firmly established there, and calendars prove its permanence. The December feast therefore reached Egypt between 427 and 433.

Saint Epiphanius

In Cyprus, at the end of the fourth century, Epiphanius asserts against the Alogi that Christ was born on 6 January and baptized on 8 November. Ephraem Syrus (whose hymns belong to Epiphany, not to Christmas) proves that Mesopotamia still put the birth feast thirteen days after the winter solstice; i.e. 6 January; Armenia likewise ignored, and still ignores, the December festival. . In Cappadocia, Gregory of Nyssa’s sermons on St. Basil and the two following, preached on St. Stephen’s feast, prove that in 380 the 25th December was already celebrated there, unless, following Usener’s too ingenious arguments, one were to place those sermons in 383. Also, Asterius of Amaseia (fifth century) and Amphilochius of Iconium (contemporary of Basil and Gregory) show that in their dioceses both the feasts of Epiphany and Nativity were separate.

In 385, Silvia of Bordeaux (or Etheria, as it seems clear she should be called) was profoundly impressed by the splendid Childhood feasts at Jerusalem. They had a definitely “Nativity” colouring; the bishop proceeded nightly to Bethlehem, returning to Jerusalem for the day celebrations. The Presentation was celebrated forty days after. But this calculation starts from 6 January, and the feast lasted during the octave of that date. Again she mentions as high festivals Easter and Epiphany alone. In 385, therefore, 25 December was not observed at Jerusalem. This checks the so-called correspondence between Cyril of Jerusalem (348-386) and Pope Julius I, quoted by John of Nikiû to convert Armenia to 25 December. Cyril declares that his clergy cannot, on the single feast of Birth and Baptism, make a double procession to Bethlehem and Jordan. (This later practice is here an anachronism.) He asks Julius to assign the true date of the nativity “from census documents brought by Titus to Rome”; Julius assigns 25 December.

St. Philogonius

In Antioch, on the feast of St. Philogonius, Chrysostom preached an important sermon. The year was almost certainly 386, though Clinton gives 387, and Usener, by a long rearrangement of the saint’s sermons, 388. But between February, 386, when Flavian ordained Chrysostom priest, and December is ample time for the preaching of all the sermons under discussion. In view of a reaction to certain Jewish rites and feasts, Chrysostom tries to unite Antioch in celebrating Christ’s birth on 25 December, part of the community having already kept it on that day for at least ten years. In the West, he says, the feast was thus kept, anothen; its introduction into Antioch he had always sought, conservatives always resisted. This time he was successful; in a crowded church he defended the new custom. It was no novelty; from Thrace to Cadiz this feast was observed — rightly, since its miraculously rapid diffusion proved its genuineness. Besides, Zachary, who, as high-priest, entered the Temple on the Day of Atonement, received therefore announcement of John’s conception in September; six months later Christ was conceived, i.e. in March, and born accordingly in December.

Gregory Nazianzen

In 379 or 380 Gregory Nazianzen made himself exarchos of the new feast, i.e. its initiator, in Constantinople, where, since the death of Valens, orthodoxy was reviving. His three Homilies were preached on successive days in the private chapel called Anastasia. On his exile in 381, the feast disappeared.

According, however, to John of Nikiû, Honorius, when he was present on a visit, arranged with Arcadius for the observation of the feast on the Roman date. Kellner puts this visit in 395; Baumstark, between 398 and 402. The latter relies on a letter of Jacob of Edessa quoted by George of Beeltân, asserting that Christmas was brought to Constantinople by Arcadius and Chrysostom from Italy, where, “according to the histories”, it had been kept from Apostolic times. Chrysostom’s episcopate lasted from 398 to 402; the feast would therefore have been introduced between these dates by Chrysostom bishop, as at Antioch by Chrysostom priest. But Lübeck proves Baumstark’s evidence invalid. More important, but scarcely better accredited, is Erbes’ contention that the feast was brought in by Constantine as early as 330-35.

At Rome the earliest evidence is in the Philocalian Calendar, compiled in 354, which contains three important entries. In the civil calendar 25 December is marked “Natalis Invicti”. In the “Depositio Martyrum” a list of Roman or early and universally venerated martyrs, under 25 December is found “VIII kal. ian. natus Christus in Betleem Iudeæ”. On “VIII kal. mart.” (22 February) is also mentioned St. Peter’s Chair. In the list of consuls are four anomalous ecclesiastical entries: the birth and death days of Christ, the entry into Rome, and martyrdom of Saints Peter and Paul. The significant entry is

“Chr. Cæsare et Paulo sat. XIII. hoc. cons. Dns. ihs. XPC natus est VIII Kal. ian. d. ven. luna XV,”

Our Lord Jesus Christ was born on the eighth before the calends of January (25 December), a Friday, the fourteenth day of the moon.

Jerome and Augustine

By the time of Jerome and Augustine, the December feast is established, though the latter omits it from a list of first-class festivals. From the fourth century every Western calendar assigns it to 25 December. At Rome, then, the Nativity was celebrated on 25 December before 354; in the East, at Constantinople, not before 379, unless with Erbes, and against Gregory, we recognize it there in 330.

Hence, almost universally has it been concluded that the new date reached the East from Rome by way of the Bosphorus during the great anti-Arian revival, and by means of the orthodox champions.

De Santi, following Erbes, argues that Rome took over the Eastern Epiphany, now with a definite Nativity colouring, and, with as increasing number of Eastern Churches, placed it on 25 December; later, both East and West divided their feast, leaving Ephiphany on 6 January, and Nativity on 25 December, respectively, and placing Christmas on 25 December and Epiphany on 6 January.

I am, therefore inclined to think that, be the origin of the feast in East or West, and though the abundance of analogous midwinter festivals may indefinitely have helped the choice of the December date, the same instinct which set Natalis Invicti at the winter solstice will have sufficed, apart from deliberate adaptation or curious calculation, to set the Christian feast there too.

The fixing of this date fixed those too of Circumcision and Presentation; of Expectation and, perhaps, Annunciation B.V.M.; and of Nativity and Conception of the Baptist. Till the tenth century Christmas counted, in papal reckoning, as the beginning of the ecclesiastical year, as it still does in Bulls; Boniface VIII (1294-1303) restored temporarily this usage, to which Germany held longest.

The notion that creation and redemption should occur at the same time of year is also reflected in ancient Jewish tradition, recorded in the Talmud. The Babylonian Talmud preserves a dispute between two early-second-century rabbis who share this view, but disagree on the date: Rabbi Eliezer states: “In Nisan the world was created; in Nisan the Patriarchs were born; on Passover Isaac was born … and in Nisan they [our ancestors] will be redeemed in time to come.” (The other rabbi, Joshua, dates these same events to the following month, Tishri.) Thus, the dates of Christmas and Epiphany may well have resulted from Christian theological reflection on such chronologies: Jesus would have been conceived on the same date he died, and born nine months later.

O, yes – one more thing – The Romans kept lots of paperwork.  Scriptum est (it is written) was important to the running of an empire4, and literally TONS of old records still exist.  The census papers of the Holy Family are still in Rome, located in the Vatican Library – which is being digitized.

Merry Christmas

~ vonMeßer

Sorry for this reading like a studious college paper – part of it was.

 

About vonMesser

Retired from the US Navy (21 years) and state (20 years). Recently remarried after being widowed for 5 years. 2 daughters, and a step-daughter, all functioning adults). Graduated from college after the Navy with BA in Education, psychology, Economics, History and Political Science. Teach Hunter Safety for Washington (since 1991) and do historical reenactments for Civil War, WW-1and WW-2.
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11 Responses to Just When Was HE Born, Anyway?

  1. Hardnox says:

    Thanks for the very interesting explanation of Christmas and how the celebration came to pass.

    Yep, it was a bit dry but interesting nonetheless.

    Merry Christmas

  2. JenZ says:

    I have recently read some articles articles that I’ve seen that raise good points and conclude that Jesus was born on December 25th!
    http://taylormarshall.com/2012/12/yes-christ-was-really-born-on-december.html
    http://www.catholic.com/blog/jon-sorensen/why-december-25

    Wishing a Merry Christmas to you and yours!

  3. captbogus2 says:

    I stick with the version Christmas was appointed at the time of the Winter Solstice which would aid in bringing pagans, who celebrated the solstice, into the Christian fold.

  4. vonmesser says:

    I am kind of with the Capt on this one. My personal favorite would be mid-late February when the sheep are in the fields. However, I have been wrong before, and could be again (that’s nothing new).

    This got done because I was asked to do something on the history of Christmas. I dug into my notes from waaaay back (I thought about the seminary for a year or so) and went to a seminary prep school for a year. (God told me in His own way that I was NOT suited for the priesthood)

  5. Kathy says:

    Interesting stuff, and I’m with Cap on this one too, but if they’re move the date of the celebration, why not move it to summer or fall when we have better weather? Just sayin’…

    • captbogus2 says:

      Aw, c’mon, Kathy. Singing Jingle Bells in July? Walking in a Summer Wonderland??
      Nah…

    • Blessed B. says:

      Winter is a better time…. most folks are not as busy as they would be during the nicer weather time.

      I’m also with Cap on this…it was to bring together the Pagans under the same roof and to convert them into Christianity.

  6. Clyde says:

    Great piece, vM. I liked reading it. Even if it would have children crying “I’M BORED” in about 10 seconds. Count me in with Buck.